Substantiate every claim

In academic writing, every claim or argument you write requires substantiation to support your claim. You can do this by citing evidence, often research results or authoritative sources.

There are several standard English phrases used to cite evidence in order to substantiate arguments and claims. These phrases, often referred to as reporting words, describe the type of claim or idea that is cited from the researcher or author of the source you report in your essay.

These reporting words are verbs written in the past tense because they refer to opinions or research results that occurred in the past.

The 10 most frequently used reporting words are as follows:

  Believed   Found
  Suggested   Investigated
  Evaluated   Showed
  Persuaded   Explained
  Agreed   Disagreed


Smith (2011) believed that an improved theoretical framework was required to explain the phenomenon more fully.

Previous studies have investigated the effects of exercise on resting blood pressure in children.

White (2009) explained the mechanism of the action of ultraviolet radiation on cells.

[fontawesome icon=”hand-right” circle=”yes” size=”small”]A comprehensive list of synonyms for each of the 10 most frequently used reporting words are outlined in the Substantiation words list.



Leave a Reply

You must be logged in to post a comment.